Hierarchy in the area of charging infrastructure

Charging infrastructure can be defined at several levels:
  • Charging pool
    A charging pool covers all electric vehicle charging infrastructure established at the selected location where users have access to one or more charging stations, and suitable parking spaces are also available for the purpose of charging.
  • Charging station
    This is an electrical assembly in a single housing with a fixed connection to the power grid, with one or more charging points.
  • Charging point
    This is a place at a charging station with one or more plugs/connectors which enables the simultaneous charging of precisely one electric vehicle; each charging point also has a parking space.
  • Charging connector/plug
    This is part of a charging point (interface) through which the physical connection between the charging point and the electric vehicle is facilitated and the transmission of electricity is performed.

E-mobility stakeholders

There are several stakeholders in e-mobility that can be basically divided into:
  • Charging Point Operators – CPOs
    establish and manage the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles in suitable locations and manage the charging points in technical and administrative terms through the back-end computer system. Via the back-end computer system, static and dynamic data on charging points for electric vehicles are also exchanged with the NAP portal.
  • o Mobility Service Providers – MSPs
    are in direct contact with electric vehicle users, who are provided with the mobility service at charging points for electric vehicles. They have a commercial relationship with these users (contract, application form, membership application) for the provision of electric vehicle charging services. The end user is charged for the service in accordance with the provisions of the business relationship, but the service may also be offered free of charge. They are also obliged to provide the mobility service in an ad hoc manner – without a business relationship between the end user and the mobility service provider and without the obligation to register.
  • owners of the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles
    are legal or natural persons who provide funds for the establishment of charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. They are also obliged to ensure a charging point operator and a mobility service provider at each charging point. Cooperation with both is based on a business relationship.
  • Owners/tenants of the land where the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles is established
    are legal or natural persons who are the owners/tenants of the land on which the charging infrastructure for electric vehicles is provided. They are usually also the owners/tenants of the metering point through which the electric vehicle charging infrastructure is connected to the power grid.

Main types of EV charging plugs

  • Type 1 plug (IEC 62196-1)
    has been designed for AC and single-phase connectors and charging power levels of up to 7.4 kW (230 V, 32 A). The use of this five-pin plug is widespread mainly in North America and Japan, and to a lesser extent in the EU.
  • Type 2 plug (IEC-62196-2)
    is a standardised seven-pin plug in the EU. The Type 2 plug has been designed for charging with alternating current (AC) – up to 16 A with single-phase connections and up to 63 A with three-phase connections – as well as charging with direct current (DC). It supports charging at a level from 3.7 kW to 44 kW.
  • CCS COMBO 2 plug
    is a standardised plug in the EU. It has been designed for direct current (DC) charging. It allows charging at power of up to 350 kW, but normally charging is in the range between 50 kW and 150 kW.
  • CHAdeMO / Type 4 plug
    has been designed for fast direct current (DC) charging. An outstanding feature of this plug is that it enables a two-way flow of electricity – both from the charging point to the vehicle and from the vehicle to the charging point and further to the grid ("vehicle to grid" V2G). Charging takes place with maximum power of up to 50 kW.
  • TESLA Supercharger
    has been designed for charging TESLA electric vehicles only and is a modified version of the Type 2 plug. It allows charging at maximum power of 150 kW.

Usefull information

Revision of EU legislation under «Fit for 55« package
Fit for 55 package is a set of proposals to revise and update EU legislation and to put in place new initiatives with the aim of ensuring that EU policies are in line with the climate goals - reducing net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030, compared to 1990 levels. Achieving these emission reductions in the next decade is crucial to Europe becoming the world's first climate-neutral continent by 2050. Part of the package presented on the 14th July 2021 is also proposal for the Regulation on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure which will repeal Directive 2014/94 on alternative fuels infrastructure deployment. This initiative seeks to ensure the availability and usability of a dense, widespread network of alternative fuels infrastructure throughout the EU. All users of alternative fuel vehicles need to be able to move through the EU at ease, enabled by key infrastructure such as motorways, ports and airports. The specific objectives are
  • ensuring minimum infrastructure to support the required uptake of alternative fuel vehicles across all transport modes and in all Member States to meet the EU’s climate objectives;
  • ensuring the infrastructure’s full interoperability and
  • ensuring full user information and adequate payment options.